Note:This article is chapter one from the authorís book A Ready Reply.

 

 

MASONRY AND THE MORMON TEMPLE

 

Michael T. Griffith

1994

@All Rights Reserved

 

 

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Questions

 

"Didn't Joseph Smith borrow from Masonry when he composed the LDS temple endowment ceremony?"

 

"How can the Mormon temple be inspired when it contains Masonic elements?"

 

"How can you explain the resemblances between Masonry and the LDS temple?"

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Numerous anti‑Mormon books and pamphlets have been written that document parallels between Masonry and the Mormon temple.These parallels consist of two general types: similarities between Masonic ritual and LDS temple ceremonies (especially the endowment ceremony), and parallels between Masonic symbols and Mormon temple symbolism.

 

In addition, anti-Mormons point to the 1990 introduction of a new version of the temple endowment as evidence against the ceremony because it does not contain some of the Masonic elements and other items from the previous version.They insist that if the endowment were inspired, no changes could be made in it.

 

What do the Masonic parallels and the changes in the endowment prove?According to the critics, the parallels prove that LDS temple ceremonies and symbolism are occultic and Satanic, and were for the most part plagiarized from Masonry, while the changes supposedly show the endowment to be a man‑made product subject to the opinions and whims of the Mormon leadership.

 

Anti‑LDS critics believe their case on the Masonic parallels is strengthened by the fact that Joseph Smith and several other early Mormon officials became Masons during the Nauvoo period.

 

Borrowing from Masonry

 

I am perfectly willing to grant that Joseph Smith borrowed from masonry in preparing the symbolism and ordinances of the temple.However, I do not accept the anti‑Mormon conclusion that this borrowing summarily invalidates the temple and its ceremonies.Logically and historically speaking, the temple's symbolism and ordinances are not automatically discredited because Joseph employed some Masonic elements to express the sacred rites and concepts that the Lord revealed to him.

 

There is evidence that Masonic ritual is derived from earlier sources that contained remnants of true temple worship.This evidence includes similarities between elements of Masonic ritual and certain early Christian initiation rites.Anti‑Mormons avoid any discussion in this area.

 

Critics also tend to ignore the fact that Joseph Smith assigned new meanings to virtually all of the Masonic elements he used and placed them in Christ‑centered contexts far removed from their original setting.

 

In doing so, Joseph Smith was not alone.In similar fashion, the ancient Hebrews employed many pagan religious designs and texts, and assigned new meanings and contexts to them.So did the early Christians.

 

For example, scholars have pointed out that the very design of Solomon's temple was "characteristically Phoenician" and "somewhat reminiscent of Babylonian shrines" (Harrison 206‑208).In addition, many of the symbols in Solomon's temple "show a marked indebtedness to Phoenician religious theory and practice" (Harrison 207).

 

Moreover, the Mosaic tabernacle was "very close in most essentials" to various pagan Egyptian portable structures, including the Egyptian "Tent of Purification" (Kitchen 9‑13; Reisner and Smith 13‑17; McDowell 110‑111).And yet, according to Exodus 25‑30, it was Yahweh Himself who instructed the Israelites on how to build the tabernacle.

 

As is well known, there are numerous striking similarities between the Law of Moses and various earlier pagan legal codes, such as the Code of Eshnunna, the Code of Lipit‑Ishtar, and the Code of Hammurabi (Harrison 59‑61; Pritchard 162‑169).Even the literary format of the Law, as it is presented in the book of Exodus, parallels the format used in earlier pagan codes of the ancient Near East (Achtemeier 1985:549).Virtually all Bible scholars have noted that the Law of Moses seems to have been patterned after pagan codes.Does this mean the Law was not inspired?If we were to follow anti‑Mormon reasoning, we could very well answer in the affirmative.But many scholars disagree and note that there are also differences between the Mosaic Law and the pagan codes.

 

One of the most popular symbolic types of the resurrection among the early Christians was the phoenix bird, a pagan symbol.I quote Robin Lane Fox:

 

†††† Among pagan men of letters, the phoenix had long exerted a particular influence.It created itself from its own ashes and united the mystery of a home in Egypt with the inauguration of a new age.Christians had been quick to use the bird as a type of their own Resurrection. . . . (639)

 

References to the phoenix are widespread in early Christian literature (Fox 639‑641; Roberts and Donaldson 1:12, 3:554, 7:324, 441).

 

In fact, the early church used several representations that were either used by pagans or acceptable to them.Christians of all persuasions might be interested to know that the image of the Good Shepherd carrying his sheep was a pagan symbol, as were other images that the ancient church employed.I quote Henry Chadwick:

 

. . . before the end of the second century Christians were freely expressing their faith in artistic terms.Tertullian mentions cups on which there were representations of the Good Shepherd carrying his sheep.Clement of Alexandria gives instruction about the picture appropriate for a Christian's signet ring. . . .Clement recommends that Christians should use seals with representations that, without being specifically Christian, are readily capable of a Christian interpretation, such as a dove, a fish, a ship, a lyre, or an anchor. . . .It is noteworthy that Clement's suggestions for appropriate seals were all types that a pagan might use; that is, they are neutral from a religious or moral point of view, and either pagans or Christians could happily use them.Likewise, the Good Shepherd carrying his sheep was a conventional pagan symbol of humanitarian concern, philanthropia.The Christians were taking a common type and investing it with a new meaning. . . . (277-278)

Another conventional pagan symbol which the Christians adopted was the Orante (also called Orans), a veiled female figure with her hands uplifted in prayer (Chadwick 278; Snyder 19-20).The Orante had long been used as a pagan cultural symbol, and it appeared on Roman coins and in sepulchral art.

 

The point is that the ancient saints used pagan symbols that could be given new, Christian meanings.I again quote Chadwick:

 

Early Christian paintings first appear not in churches but as funerary decoration in the Roman catacombs.The style of painting is not dissimilar to that found on many ordinary pagan houses at Pompeii. . . .Catacomb art is full of old motifs and, since the technique and style are popular, no large aesthetic claims can be made for it.The content, however, is of much greater interest than the form.The motifs of pagan convention which the Christians used were symbols which were capable of Christian reinterpretation. (278, emphasis added)

 

So what does all of this mean?Do we therefore reject Solomon's temple?Do we repudiate the Mosaic tabernacle? Do we spurn the Law of Moses?Do we denounce the early Christians? After all, surely God would not allow true prophets to use such repugnant pagan stuff to build sacred structures or to express His sacred truths?Right?Of course not.The plain fact of the matter is that prophets of God have frequently drawn on the symbols and literature of their cultural environment to express sacred truth.

 

The Changes in the Temple Endowment

 

The anti‑Mormon view of the changes in the endowment is based primarily on a fundamentalist understanding of scripture and of how God interacts with His prophets.Anti‑Mormons are scandalized that modern LDS prophets would claim the authority to alter a ceremony which was allegedly revealed by God to the Prophet Joseph Smith.

 

However, the anti‑Mormon position is unreasonable in light of the fact that Bible prophets exercised similar authority with regard to scripture and to certain revealed ceremonies.

 

If anti‑LDS critics are disturbed by the changes in the endowment, are they equally upset over the well‑known fact that Mark and Luke deliberately downplayed Pilate's role in Jesus' execution in order to avoid offending their Roman audience?To this day, Jewish critics assail Mark and Luke on this point (Levine 26‑27; Cohn 164‑190).

 

Are anti‑Mormons shocked that the authors of the New Testament Gospels took the liberty of omitting or correcting items from each other's writings that might have seemed offensive or inconsistent to their readers?Some Bible commentators consider this to be proof that the Gospels aren't inspired, while other scholars more correctly see this as clear evidence that the ancient Christians simply did not have a fundamentalist view of scripture (Levine 25‑28, 65‑93; Wilson 32‑50, 137‑139; Cohn; Achtemeier 1980:57‑75; Barr 1‑50, 98‑147; Davis; Abraham).

 

If anti‑LDS critics see the changes in the endowment as evidence against the temple, do they similarly call into question the ancient Hebrew faith because of the changes in Hebrew worship which Ezekiel was obliged to make as a result of the Babylonian captivity?Because of these changes, the Hebrews ceased to observe certain "eternal" rites which Jehovah had previously commanded them to observe (Harrison 267‑268; Achtemeier 1985:80, 305‑306, 1014, and the scriptural passages cited therein).

 

Joseph Smith's View of Masonry and the Differences Between Masonry and the Endowment

Two relevant topics that rarely if ever receive serious consideration in anti‑Mormon literature are (1) Joseph Smith's view of Masonry, and (2) the many differences between the endowment and Masonic ritual.Anti‑LDS critics often avoid the fact that Joseph Smith saw Masonic ritual as a corrupt form of a true original.And anti-Mormons are virtually silent on the numerous differences between Masonry and LDS temple rites.I think it would be useful at this point to quote what some other LDS writers have said on these subjects.Eugene Seaich:

 

The relationship between Freemasonry and the LDS temple Endowment has long been a matter of speculation amongst students of Mormon history.Joseph Smith was of the opinion that Masonic ritual was a corrupt form of the original Priesthood; but since the Masons themselves make no claim to have existed prior to the time of the great cathedral builders, anti‑Mormons have argued that similarities between the two must be the result of deliberate plagiarism on the part of the Church.Very seldom, however, do they think to ask whether Masonic ritual itself might be derived from earlier sources, particularly traditions surviving from the Primitive Church.If this were to prove to be the case, then it might have been Providence rather than deception that led Joseph Smith to become a Third Degree Mason in 1842, perhaps as part of his divine education in the rudiments of the Restored Gospel.

 

More remarkable still is that the Prophet not only claimed to recognize in Masonry survivals of ancient temple practice, but that he dared to correct what he found, offering in its place what he said was the uncorrupt prototype.Thus, while Mormon temple ritual indeed bears some resemblance to Freemasonry, it also differs in significant points, showing that Joseph Smith had his own ideas about the proper form of the original.Today it is becoming possible to compare his insights with newly recovered material dealing at first hand with early temple traditions. (1984:1)

 

If the Freemasons happened to pick up surviving fragments of ... [the] ancient temple scheme, it is only proof that such worship actually existed on the earth at one time.The famous Mystery Plays of the Middle Ages also preserved elements of the temple scheme, with their cycles of didactic [instructional] OT stories repeated on major holy days for the edification and instruction of the masses."Every man," for example, was but another "Adam" or "Israel" performing his ritual "pilgrimage" through the wilderness," a theme which reappeared also in Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.

 

We have no idea how many different ways God may employ to inspire men to the work he intends them to perform; but it is undoubtedly providential that Joseph Smith came into contact with both the Book of Abraham facsimiles and Freemasonry at a time when he was required to restore the original temple scheme in all its detail. . . . Joseph Smith knew far more than the Masons, whose rites are but scattered clues to a larger, more perfect picture. (1983:75)

 

Ian Barber:

 

As revealed to the prophet, the endowment ordinance, as Mormons have realized from the beginning, was at least partially influenced by the ritual language of Masonry with which Joseph was intimately familiar.Recent analysis confirms that the effect on Joseph Smith and the early Mormons of Freemasonry as an important culture contributor is undeniable. . . .

 

I trust that . . . the reader is well aware of the plausibility‑‑in fact, the necessity‑‑of God using a local and familiar cultural medium through which to reveal truth.As Elizabethan English (personally comfortable to Joseph and to his contemporaries as "scriptural language") provided the medium for the new revelations, so masonry provided an organizational model on which a divine and holy ritual (the endowment) could be readily assimilated and understood.That there are resemblances . . . only validates the scripturally sound principle that God's commandments are given after the manner of the "weakness of men." . . . Thus Heber C. Kimball wrote to Parley P. Pratt in England, "There is a similarity of priesthood in masonry.Brother Joseph says masonry was taken from the priesthood but has become degenerated, but many things are perfect" (letter dated 17 June 1842, Church Archives).Joseph Fielding wrote in his Nauvoo journal for December 22, 1843, "many have joined the Masonic institution.This seems to have been a stepping stone or preparation for something else, the true Origin of masonry. . . ."It is significant that these men intimately familiar with the ordinances of masonry in the 19th Century cultural setting, did not. see the endowment as plagiarized masonry‑‑rather, the [Masonic] craft provided only a "stepping stone" on which a greater fullness of truth could be revealed.

 

To those who know both the endowment and the masonic order, it is quite apparent that the latter provides only certain superficial aspects of the form of the LDS temple rite, and certainly little of the deep and intricate theological truths. . . . (G/4‑H/1)

 

Early Christian Evidence

 

The striking resemblance between the temple endowment and the early Christian rite of initiation is strong evidence that Joseph Smith did indeed restore the original ancient temple scheme.

 

The ancient Christian initiation rite appears to have been a conflation of the temple endowment with the ordinance of baptism.Non‑members were not permitted to view the rite, and in most cases it was not administered to a person until he or she had been a believer for at least one year.The rite was sometimes referred to as "the mystery," and the things involved therein were on occasion called "the mysteries."

 

During the rite of initiation, the candidate could be taught certain "higher teachings" which were reserved only for members who were deemed ready and worthy to receive them.Extra‑scriptural higher teachings are mentioned by several early Christian bishops and apologists.For example, Clement of Alexandria (A.D. 150‑215), a prominent theologian in the early church and head of the Christian academy in Alexandria, stated that these higher teachings were not included in Christ's public preaching but were transmitted unwritten by the apostles and were given only to church members who were qualified to receive them (MaGill 47).Clement declared that these sacred teachings were the key to entering into the "highest sphere" of heaven (MaGill 47).

 

The rite of initiation also included the administering of sacred signs and tokens, Garden‑of‑Eden scenes in the background, the rebuking of Satan with upraised arm, the wearing of sacred white clothing (some of which had markings identical to those on LDS temple garments), and the anointing of various parts of the body with oil.

 

Of course, the sacred nature of the temple prevents me from explaining the significance of these items in relation to the endowment.However, suffice it to say that any Latter‑day Saint who has been to the temple will immediately see the significance of these things.

 

For those who would like to learn more about the early Christian rite of initiation and the extra‑scriptural higher teachings which accompanied it, I would suggest they consult the research that has been done on this subject by Seaich (1983:56‑75; 1984), Stephen E. Robinson (96‑103), Hugh Nibley, Blake Ostler, William Hamblin, Roger J. Adams, and Darrick Evenson (71‑101).

 

Conclusion

 

When discussing Mormonism and Masonry, anti‑LDS critics fail to deal with evidence which qualifies or disproves their arguments.Many of the criticisms they advance against the temple can also be made against ancient Hebrew and early Christian worship.

 

Anti‑Mormons have yet to explain the impressive parallels between the LDS endowment ceremony and the early Christian rite of initiation.The early church's initiation rite provides evidence for the divine origin of the LDS temple endowment.

 

Joseph Smith saw in Masonry remnants of the original temple scheme.He therefore thought it appropriate and helpful to employ some Masonic elements to express the true original as it had been revealed to him by the Lord.This in no way detracts from the beauty and inspiration of the temple.

 

In employing Masonic elements, the Prophet Joseph assigned new meanings to almost all of them and placed them in theological contexts far removed from their original setting.

 

Although there are some similarities between Masonry and the Mormon temple, there are also many differences.Furthermore, Masonic ritual does not possess the intricate theological depth that is present in LDS temple ceremonies.

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR:Michael T. Griffith holds a Masterís degree in Theology from The Catholic Distance University, a Graduate Certificate in Ancient and Classical History from American Military University, a Bachelorís degree in Liberal Arts from Excelsior College, and two Associate in Applied Science degrees from the Community College of the Air Force.He also holds an Advanced Certificate of Civil War Studies and a Certificate of Civil War Studies from Carroll College.He is a graduate in Arabic and Hebrew of the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California, and of the U.S. Air Force Technical Training School in San Angelo, Texas.In addition, he has completed an Advanced Hebrew program at Haifa University in Israel.He is the author of five books on Mormonism and ancient texts, including How Firm A Foundation, A Ready Reply, and One Lord, One Faith.

 

 

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††††††††††† -----."Joseph Smith as Found in Ancient Manuscripts." In Monte S. Nyman, editor, ISAIAH AND THE PROPHETS.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young Univeristy, Religious Studies Center, 1984. 11-32.

 

††††††††††† -----."Premortal Existence, Foreordinations, and Heavenly Councils."In C. Wilfred Griggs, editor, APOCRYPHAL

WRITINGS AND THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, Religious Studies Center,

1986. 173-198.

 

††††††††††† -----, and Robert F. Millet.SUSTAINING AND DEFENDING THE FAITH.Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1985.

 

††††††††††† McDowell, Josh.THE RESURRECTION FACTOR.San Bernardino, California: Here's Life, 1981.

 

††††††††††† Meservy, Keith."Discoveries at Nimrud and the 'Sticks' of Ezekiel."In the NEWSLETTER AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY FOR EARLY HISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY, Number 142, November 1978. 1-10.

 

††††††††††† -----."Ezekiel's Sticks."In the ENSIGN, September 1977. 22-27.

 

††††††††††† Migne, J.P., editor.PATROLOGIAE GRAECA.161 volumes.Paris:n.p., 1886.Reference from Norman 1977:311 n 103.

 

††††††††††† Millet, Robert L.BY GRACE ARE WE SAVED.Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1989.

 

††††††††††† -----, and Joseph Fielding McConkie.SUSTAINING AND DEFENDING THE FAITH.Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1985.

 

††††††††††† -----, and Joseph Fielding McConkie.THE LIFE BEYOND.Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1986.

 

††††††††††† Milne, Mary K."Laodicea."In Paul Achtemeier, editor, HARPER'S BIBLE DICTIONARY.San Francisco, California: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1985. 547.

 

††††††††††† Morgenstern, Julian."The Mythological Background of Psalm 82."In HEBREW UNION COLLEGE ANNUAL, volume 14, 1939. 29-126.

 

††††††††††† Morris, Leon."Hebrews."In Frank Gaebelein, editor, THE EXPOSITOR'S BIBLE COMMENTARY. Volume 12.Grand Rapids Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981.

 

††††††††††† Mullen, E. Theodore.THE ASSEMBLY OF THE GODS.Harvard Semitic Monograph Series.Chico, California: Scholars Press, 1980.

 

††††††††††† Newman, Barclay.A CONCISE GREEK-ENGLISH DICTIONARY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.Stuttgart, Germany: United Bible Societies, 1971.

 

††††††††††† Nibley, Hugh."Irenaeus."F.A.R.M.S. Preliminary Report. Provo, Utah: F.A.R.M.S., 1984a.

 

††††††††††† -----.MORMONISM AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company and F.A.R.M.S., 1987.

 

††††††††††† -----.SINCE CUMORAH.Second Edition.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book and F.A.R.M.S., 1988.

 

††††††††††† -----.THE PROPHETIC BOOK OF MORMON.Salt Lake City, Utah:Deseret Book Company and F.A.R.M.S., 1989. 1-48.

 

††††††††††† -----."Treasures in the Heavens."In Truman Madsen, editor, NIBLEY ON THE TIMELY AND THE TIMELESS.Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1978. 49-84.

 

††††††††††† -----."What Is A Temple?"In Truman Madsen, editor, THE TEMPLE IN ANTIQUITY.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, Religious Studies Center, 1984b. 19-38.

 

††††††††††† Norman, Keith."Divinization: The Forgotten Teaching of Early Christianity."In SUNSTONE, Winter 1975. 15-19.

 

††††††††††† -----."Ex Nihilo: The Development of the Doctrines of God and Creation in Early Christianity."In BYU STUDIES, volume 17, number 3, Spring 1977. 291-318.

 

††††††††††† Norris, Richard A., editor.THE CHRISTOLOGICAL CONTROVERSY.Sources of Early Christian Thought.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1980.

 

††††††††††† Olin, John C., editor.A REFORMATION DEBATE.Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1976, reprint.

 

††††††††††† Ostler, Blake."Clothed Upon: A Unique Aspect of Christian Antiquity."In BYU STUDIES, Winter 1982. 31-45.

 

††††††††††† Overholt, Thomas W."Jeremiah."In James L. Mays, general editor, HARPER'S BIBLE COMMENTARY.San Francisco, California: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1988. 597-645.

 

††††††††††† Pagels, Elaine.THE GNOSTIC GOSPELS.New York: Vintage Books, 1979.

 

††††††††††† Parrot, Douglas M."Gnostic and Orthodox Disciples in the Second and Third Centuries."In Charles Hedrick and Robert Hodgson, editors, NAG HAMMADI, GNOSTICISM, AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1986. 193-219.

 

††††††††††† Paulsen, David."Early Christian Belief in a Corporeal Deity:Origen and Augustine as Reluctant Witnesses."In HARVARD THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, volume 83, number 2, 1990. 105-116.

 

††††††††††† Peterson, Daniel C."Does the Qur'an Teach Creation EX NIHILO?", in John Lundquist and Stephen D. Ricks,

editors, BY STUDY AND ALSO BY FAITH.Volume 1.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company and F.A.R.M.S.,

1990. 584-591.

 

††††††††††† -----, and Stephen D. Ricks.OFFENDERS FOR A WORD: HOW ANTI-MORMONS PLAY WORD GAMES TO ATTACK THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS.Salt Lake City, Utah: Aspen Books, 1992.

†††††††††††

††††††††††† Prestige, G.L.GOD IN PATRISTIC THOUGHT.Second Edition.London: Society for the Propogation of Christian Knowledge, 1952.

 

††††††††††† Price, James L."The First Letter of Paul to the Corinthians."In Charles Laymon, editor, THE INTERPRETER'S ONE-VOLUME COMMENTARY ON THE BIBLE.Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon Press, 1971. 795-812.

 

††††††††††† Quasten, Johannes.PATROLOGY.3 Volumes.Westminster, Maryland: Christian Classics, Inc., 1990, reprint of 1950 edition.

 

††††††††††† Reicke, Bo.THE EPISTLES OF JAMES, JUDE, AND PETER.Second Edition.The Anchor Bible.Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1982.

 

††††††††††† Reynolds, George and Janne M. Sjodahl.COMMENTARY ON THE PEARL OF GREAT PRICE.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1974.

 

††††††††††† Rich, Russell B.ENSIGN TO THE NATIONS: A HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH FROM 1846 TO 1972.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Publications, 1972.

 

††††††††††† Richards, LeGrand.A MARVELOUS WORK AND A WONDER.Revised and Enlarged Edition.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1976.

 

††††††††††† Richardson, Cyril C., editor.EARLY CHRISTIAN FATHERS.New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1970.

 

††††††††††† Riley, Hugh M.CHRISTIAN INITIATION.Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1974.

 

††††††††††† Roberts, Alexander and James Donaldson et al, editors and translators.THE ANTE-NICENE FATHERS.Ten Volumes.Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1980-1985, reprint of American Edition, 1869-1873.The original edition consisted of only nine volumes; volume 10 is an added volume edited by Allan Menzies.

 

††††††††††† Roberts, B.H.THE LORD'S DAY.Missionary Pamphlet. Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1974, reprint.

 

††††††††††† Robinson, H. Wheeler."The Council of Yahweh."In the JOURNAL OF THEOLOGICAL STUDIES, volume 45, 1944. 151-157.

 

††††††††††† Robinson, Stephen E.ARE MORMONS CHRISTIANS?Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1991.

 

††††††††††† Rusch, William G.THE TRINITARIAN CONTROVERSY.Sources of Early Christian Thought.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1980.

 

††††††††††† Russel, Jeffrey Burton.SATAN: THE EARLY CHRISTIAN TRADITION.Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1981.

 

††††††††††† Scharffs, Gilbert.THE TRUTH ABOUT "THE GODMAKERS."Salt Lake City, Utah: Publishers Press, 1986.

 

††††††††††† Seaich, Eugene.ANCIENT TEXTS AND MORMONISM.Sandy, Utah: Mormon Miscellaneous, 1983.

 

††††††††††† -----."Did the Freemasons Copy Their Ritual from the Mormons?"Sandy, Utah: Unpublished paper, 1984, copy in my possession.

†††††††††††

††††††††††† -----.MORMONISM, THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS, AND THE NAG HAMMADI TEXTS.Murray, Utah: Sounds of Zion Publishing, 1980.

 

††††††††††† Smith, Morton.JESUS THE MAGICIAN.San Francisco, California: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1978.

 

††††††††††† Smith, Robert F."Satan: Notes on the Gods."December 1992 Draft, copy in my possession.

 

††††††††††† Snyder, Graydon.ANTE-PACEM: ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF CHURCH LIFE BEFORE CONSTANTINE.Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1985.

 

††††††††††† Sparks, Jack N., editor.THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS.Nashville,Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1978.

 

††††††††††† Stadelmann, Luis.THE HEBREW CONCEPTION OF THE WORLD (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1970).

 

††††††††††† Sundberg, Albert C."The Making of the New Testament Canon."In Charles Laymon, editor, THE INTERPRETER'S ONE-VOLUME COMMENTARY ON THE BIBLE.Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon

Press, 1971. 1216-1224.

 

††††††††††† Talmage, James E.JESUS THE CHRIST.Thirty-Fourth Edition. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1962.

 

††††††††††† -----.THE ARTICLES OF FAITH, Forty-Second Edition.Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of

Latter-day Saints, 1976.

 

††††††††††† Thompson, Claude Holmes."The Book of Jude."In Charles Laymon, editor, THE INTERPRETER'S ONE-VOLUME COMMENTARY ON THE BIBLE.Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon Press, 1971. 942-944.

 

††††††††††† Turner, Rodney."The Doctrine of Godhood in the New Testament." In PRINCIPLES OF THE GOSPEL IN PRACTICE. 1985 Sperry Symposium.Salt Lake City, Utah: Randall

Book Company, 1985. 21-38.

 

††††††††††† Tvedtnes, John.THE CHURCH OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.Second Edition.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1980.

 

††††††††††† Tzaferis, Vassilios."Crucifixion--The Archaeological Evidence."In BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY REVIEW, January/February 1985. 49-53.

 

††††††††††† Vestal, Kirk Holland, and Arthur Wallace.THE FIRM FOUNDATION OF MORMONISM.Los Angeles, California: LL Books, 1981.

 

††††††††††† Vine, W.E.VINE'S EXPOSITORY DICTIONARY OF NEW TESTAMENT WORDS.4 Volumes.Westwood, New Jersey: Barbour and Company, Inc., reprint of 1952 edition, with the four volumes combined into one volume.

 

††††††††††† Wellnitz, Marcus Von."The Catholic Liturgy and the Mormon Temple."In BYU STUDIES, Winter 1981. 3-35.

Westcott, Brooke Foss.THE BIBLE IN THE CHURCH.Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1979, reprint.

 

††††††††††† White, James."Mormon Scholars Defend Their Church: A Review and Rebuttal of Offenders for a Word."In PROS APOLOGIAN, Spring 1993. 1-9.This article and the one cited below both appeared in the Spring 1993 issue of PROS APOLOGIAN.

 

††††††††††† -----."Hugh Nibley, The Universal Apostasy, And the Gates of Hades."In PROS APOLOGIAN, Spring 1993. 10-12.

 

††††††††††† Wilken, Robert.THE CHRISTIANS AS THE ROMANS SAW THEM.London: Yale University Press, 1984.

 

††††††††††† Winston, David."Creation EX NIHILO Revisited."In the JOURNAL OF JEWISH STUDIES, volume 37, Spring 1986. 88-91.

 

††††††††††† Woodrow, Ralph.BABYLON MYSTERY RELIGION.Riverside, California: Ralph Woodrow Evangelistic Association, 1981.